solved : RPMDB altered outside of yum

2014-01-21 RPMDB altered outside of yum

在使用yum的时候报的错误,解决方法为:

yum history sync

主要是将我们rpmdbyumdb进行同步一下,注意,这个过程根据你的机器情况和安装软件包的数量可能会小小的需要一段时间。

 

Refer

https://access.redhat.com/site/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7-Beta/html/System_Administrators_Guide/sect-Yum-Transaction_History.html

 

5.4. Working with Transaction History

The yum history command allows users to review information about a timeline of Yum transactions, the dates and times they occurred, the number of packages affected, whether transactions succeeded or were aborted, and if the RPM database was changed between transactions. Additionally, this command can be used to undo or redo certain transactions. All history data are stored in the history DB in the var/lib/yum/history/ directory.

5.4.1. Listing Transactions

To display a list of twenty most recent transactions, as root, either run yum history with no additional arguments, or type the following at a shell prompt:

yum history list

To display all transactions, add the all keyword:

yum history list all

To display only transactions in a given range, use the command in the following form:

yum history list start_id..end_id

You can also list only transactions regarding a particular package or packages. To do so, use the command with a package name or a glob expression:

yum history list glob_expression…

Example 5.18. Listing the five oldest transactions

 

In the output of yum history list, the most recent transaction is displayed at the top of the list. To display information about the five oldest transactions stored in the history data base, type:

~]# yum history list 1..5

Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, subscription-manager

ID     | Login user               | Date and time    | Action(s)      | Altered

——————————————————————————-

     5 | Jaromir … <jhradilek>  | 2013-07-29 15:33 | Install        |    1

     4 | Jaromir … <jhradilek>  | 2013-07-21 15:10 | Install        |    1

     3 | Jaromir … <jhradilek>  | 2013-07-16 15:27 | I, U           |   73

     2 | System <unset>           | 2013-07-16 15:19 | Update         |    1

     1 | System <unset>           | 2013-07-16 14:38 | Install        | 1106

history list

 

All forms of the yum history list command produce tabular output with each row consisting of the following columns:

ID — an integer value that identifies a particular transaction.

Login user — the name of the user whose login session was used to initiate a transaction. This information is typically presented in the Full Name <username> form. For transactions that were not issued by a user (such as an automatic system update), System <unset> is used instead.

Date and time — the date and time when a transaction was issued.

Action(s) — a list of actions that were performed during a transaction as described in Table 5.1, “Possible values of the Action(s) field”.

Altered — the number of packages that were affected by a transaction, possibly followed by additional information as described in Table 5.2, “Possible values of the Altered field”.

Table 5.1. Possible values of the Action(s) field

 

Action   Abbreviation   Description

Downgrade D    At least one package has been downgraded to an older version.

Erase    E     At least one package has been removed.

Install    I      At least one new package has been installed.

Obsoleting  O    At least one package has been marked as obsolete.

Reinstall      R     At least one package has been reinstalled.

Update U    At least one package has been updated to a newer version.

 

Table 5.2. Possible values of the Altered field

 

Symbol Description

<     Before the transaction finished, the rpmdb database was changed outside Yum.

>     After the transaction finished, the rpmdb database was changed outside Yum.

*     The transaction failed to finish.

#    The transaction finished successfully, but yum returned a non-zero exit code.

E     The transaction finished successfully, but an error or a warning was displayed.

P     The transaction finished successfully, but problems already existed in the rpmdb database.

s     The transaction finished successfully, but the –skip-broken command line option was used and certain packages were skipped.

 

To synchronize the rpmdb or yumdb database contents for any installed package with the currently used rpmdb or yumdb database, type the following:

yum history sync

To display some overall statistics about the currently used history DB use the following command:

yum history stats

Example 5.19. Example output of yum history stats

 

~]# yum history stats

Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit

File        : //var/lib/yum/history/history-2012-08-15.sqlite

Size        : 2,766,848

Transactions: 41

Begin time  : Wed Aug 15 16:18:25 2012

End time    : Wed Feb 27 14:52:30 2013

Counts      :

  NEVRAC :  2,204

  NEVRA  :  2,204

  NA     :  1,759

  NEVR   :  2,204

  rpm DB :  2,204

  yum DB :  2,204

history stats

 

Yum also allows you to display a summary of all past transactions. To do so, run the command in the following form as root:

yum history summary

To display only transactions in a given range, type:

yum history summary start_id..end_id

Similarly to the yum history list command, you can also display a summary of transactions regarding a certain package or packages by supplying a package name or a glob expression:

yum history summary glob_expression…

Example 5.20. Summary of the five latest transactions

 

~]# yum history summary 1..5

Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, subscription-manager

Login user                 | Time                | Action(s)        | Altered

——————————————————————————-

Jaromir … <jhradilek>    | Last day            | Install          |        1

Jaromir … <jhradilek>    | Last week           | Install          |        1

Jaromir … <jhradilek>    | Last 2 weeks        | I, U             |       73

System <unset>             | Last 2 weeks        | I, U             |     1107

history summary

 

All forms of the yum history summary command produce simplified tabular output similar to the output of yum history list.

As shown above, both yum history list and yum history summary are oriented towards transactions, and although they allow you to display only transactions related to a given package or packages, they lack important details, such as package versions. To list transactions from the perspective of a package, run the following command as root:

yum history package-list glob_expression…

Example 5.21. Tracing the history of a package

 

For example, to trace the history of subscription-manager and related packages, type the following at a shell prompt:

~]# yum history package-list subscription-manager\*

Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, subscription-manager

ID     | Action(s)      | Package

——————————————————————————-

     3 | Updated        | subscription-manager-0.95.11-1.el6.x86_64

     3 | Update         |                      0.95.17-1.el6_1.x86_64

     3 | Updated        | subscription-manager-firstboot-0.95.11-1.el6.x86_64

     3 | Update         |                                0.95.17-1.el6_1.x86_64

     3 | Updated        | subscription-manager-gnome-0.95.11-1.el6.x86_64

     3 | Update         |                            0.95.17-1.el6_1.x86_64

     1 | Install        | subscription-manager-0.95.11-1.el6.x86_64

     1 | Install        | subscription-manager-firstboot-0.95.11-1.el6.x86_64

     1 | Install        | subscription-manager-gnome-0.95.11-1.el6.x86_64

history package-list

In this example, three packages were installed during the initial system installation: subscription-manager, subscription-manager-firstboot, and subscription-manager-gnome. In the third transaction, all these packages were updated from version 0.95.11 to version 0.95.17.

 

5.4.2. Examining Transactions

To display the summary of a single transaction, as root, use the yum history summary command in the following form:

yum history summary id

To examine a particular transaction or transactions in more detail, run the following command as root:

yum history info id…

The id argument is optional and when you omit it, yum automatically uses the last transaction. Note that when specifying more than one transaction, you can also use a range:

yum history info start_id..end_id

Example 5.22. Example output of yum history info

 

The following is sample output for two transactions, each installing one new package:

~]# yum history info 4..5

Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, subscription-manager

Transaction ID : 4..5

Begin time     : Thu Jul 21 15:10:46 2011

Begin rpmdb    : 1107:0c67c32219c199f92ed8da7572b4c6df64eacd3a

End time       :            15:33:15 2011 (22 minutes)

End rpmdb      : 1109:1171025bd9b6b5f8db30d063598f590f1c1f3242

User           : Jaromir Hradilek <jhradilek>

Return-Code    : Success

Command Line   : install screen

Command Line   : install yum-plugin-fs-snapshot

Transaction performed with:

    Installed     rpm-4.8.0-16.el6.x86_64

    Installed     yum-3.2.29-17.el6.noarch

    Installed     yum-metadata-parser-1.1.2-16.el6.x86_64

Packages Altered:

    Install screen-4.0.3-16.el6.x86_64

    Install yum-plugin-fs-snapshot-1.1.30-6.el6.noarch

history info

 

You can also view additional information, such as what configuration options were used at the time of the transaction, or from what repository and why were certain packages installed. To determine what additional information is available for a certain transaction, type the following at a shell prompt as root:

yum history addon-info id

Similarly to yum history info, when no id is provided, yum automatically uses the latest transaction. Another way to refer to the latest transaction is to use the last keyword:

yum history addon-info last

Example 5.23. Example output of yum history addon-info

 

For the fourth transaction in the history, the yum history addon-info command provides the following output:

~]# yum history addon-info 4

Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, subscription-manager

Transaction ID: 4

Available additional history information:

  config-main

  config-repos

  saved_tx

 

history addon-info

 

In the output of the yum history addon-info command, three types of information are available:

config-main — global Yum options that were in use during the transaction. Refer to Section 5.5.1, “Setting [main] Options” for information on how to change global options.

config-repos — options for individual Yum repositories. Refer to Section 5.5.2, “Setting [repository] Options” for information on how to change options for individual repositories.

saved_tx — the data that can be used by the yum load-transaction command in order to repeat the transaction on another machine (see below).

To display selected type of additional information, run the following command as root:

yum history addon-info id information

5.4.3. Reverting and Repeating Transactions

Apart from reviewing the transaction history, the yum history command provides means to revert or repeat a selected transaction. To revert a transaction, type the following at a shell prompt as root:

yum history undo id

To repeat a particular transaction, as root, run the following command:

yum history redo id

Both commands also accept the last keyword to undo or repeat the latest transaction.

Note that both yum history undo and yum history redo commands only revert or repeat the steps that were performed during a transaction. If the transaction installed a new package, the yum history undo command will uninstall it, and if the transaction uninstalled a package the command will again install it. This command also attempts to downgrade all updated packages to their previous version, if these older packages are still available. If you need to restore the system to the state before an update, consider using the fs-snapshot plug-in described in Section 5.6.3, “Working with Plug-ins”.

When managing several identical systems, Yum also allows you to perform a transaction on one of them, store the transaction details in a file, and after a period of testing, repeat the same transaction on the remaining systems as well. To store the transaction details to a file, type the following at a shell prompt as root:

yum -q history addon-info id saved_tx > file_name

Once you copy this file to the target system, you can repeat the transaction by using the following command as root:

yum load-transaction file_name

You can configure load-transaction to ignore missing packages or rpmdb version. For more information on these configuration options see the yum.conf man page.

5.4.4. Starting New Transaction History

Yum stores the transaction history in a single SQLite database file. To start new transaction history, run the following command as root:

yum history new

This will create a new, empty database file in the /var/lib/yum/history/ directory. The old transaction history will be kept, but will not be accessible as long as a newer database file is present in the directory.

The best Latex Editor for MAC

Maybe first you will remind me that MacTex, which is popular now.

Anyway: I refer some article and find there are also many other tools.

refer from : https://discussions.apple.com/message/18653515#18653515

There are quite a few “integrated” solutions, combining editor and pdf preview (the very fine TeXShop being one of them) — some of them are quite new (even beta); TeXShop, on the other hand, is very mature:

TeXPad:

http://vallettaventures.com/texpad

Latexian:

http://tacosw.com/latexian/

TeXnicle:

http://www.bobsoft-mac.de/texnicle/texnicle.html

Scribo:

http://www.scriboapp.com/

Texmaker (cross-platform, qt-based; all the others are OS X native):

http://www.xm1math.net/texmaker/index.html

 

You can also check the entries, and the comments, on Macupdate:

http://www.macupdate.com/find/mac/latex

 

That said, I use none of them, although I have TeXShop around. (This doesn’t mean the new integrated solutions aren’t any good; I haven’t tried them yet.)

 

That’s because what’s most important, imho, in a good LaTeX environment is the editor, i.e., how much help is there to get the source written. Accordingly, many people would agree that the best editor available plus a fine synchronised, but stand-alone pdf viewer is superior than a (compromising, or so the musing goes) all-in-one tool.

 

The, hands-down, best pdf viewer, supporting PDFSync (syncing source and pdf), is Skim; it’s free:

http://skim-app.sourceforge.net/

 

As regards the best editor, there is constant disagreement among OS X users, some would even say “war” — but that just shows how vivid the Mac ecosphere is when it comes to such tools.

 

Leaving the “classics” aside, Emacs (Aquamacs, http://aquamacs.org/) and Vim (Macvim, http://code.google.com/p/macvim/), dreaded for their learning curve, worshipped for their power, two of the best, modern, clean, yet powerful editors are TextMate and Sublime Text 2:

 

http://macromates.com/

helpful: http://www.astrobetter.com/how-and-why-to-use-textmate-for-latex/

 

http://www.sublimetext.com/2

helpful: http://tekonomist.wordpress.com/2011/03/25/the-in-progress-latex-plugin-for-subl ime-text-2-4/

 

Many would hold that the combination of either TextMate (2) or Sublime Text 2 together with Skim provides the best LaTeX environment ever.

Some Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) for Python

 

clip_image002

 

Environment

Description

Web Site

IDLE

The standard Python environment

http://www.python.org/idle

Pythonwin

Windows-oriented environment

http://www.python.org/download/windows

ActivePython

Feature-packed; contains Pythonwin IDE

http://www.activestate.com

Komodo

Commercial IDE

http://www.activestate.com3

Wingware

Commercial IDE

http://www.wingware.com

BlackAdder

Commercial IDE and (Qt) GUI builder

http://www.thekompany.com

Boa Constructor

Free IDE and GUI builder

http://boa-constructor.sf.net

Anjuta

Versatile IDE for Linux/UNIX

http://anjuta.sf.net

Arachno Python

Commercial IDE

http://www.python-ide.com

Code Crusader

Commercial IDE

http://www.newplanetsoftware.com

Code Forge

Commercial IDE

http://www.codeforge.com

Eclipse

Popular, flexible, open source IDE

http://www.eclipse.org

eric

Free IDE using Qt

http://eric-ide.sf.net

KDevelop

Cross-language IDE for KDE

http://www.kdevelop.org

VisualWx

Free GUI builder

http://visualwx.altervista.org

wxDesigner

Commercial GUI builder

http://www.roebling.de

wxGlade

Free GUI builder

http://wxglade.sf.net

二十几岁比别人幸运,就靠这9个好习惯

习惯一旦养成,就会成为支配人生的一种行为力量,它可以主宰人的一生。

 
  • 播下一种行为,收获一种习惯;
  • 播下一种习惯,收获一种性格;
  • 播下一种性格,收获一种命运;
 
  1. 树立目标并做好规划,目标要打,并专心致志,制定一个完成目标的可行性计划,并开始行动;
  2. 塑造一种可以战胜一切的品质,品格是人生的王冠和荣耀,记住有志者,事竟成,对别人的宽容就是对自己的宽容,要有责任感,成功源于细节;
  3. 了解各种为人处世的细节,敢于怀疑才会有进步,感恩的心会使人变得愉悦和健康,消除嫉妒心,把幸福分给别人,幸福才会更多,你付出什么,就会得到什么,换位思考,学会理解,尊重他人才能包容一切
  4. 调节好情绪与心态,控制好你自己的情绪,记住,情绪成就一切,你的心态决定生活状态,保持开朗,打开心灵之窗,,正确对待人生的各种得失,学会冷静,会调节与释放压力,心有多大,舞台就有多大
  5. 学会高效工作,学会规划自己的时间,确定工作的优先次序,切忌三心二意,有了计划要马上付诸行动,好的习惯是提高效率的关键
  6. 正确支配自己的财富
  7. 开发自己的创造力,留住刹那间的思维火花,
  8. 捕捉每一个属于自己的机会,,机遇只垂青有准备的人
  9. 努力找寻人生的真谛,学会从不同的角度看问题,生活的不如意大多源自于比较,平静是一种难得的幸福,时常与自己的心灵说说话,推荐打坐,嘿嘿

Homebrew — The missing package manager for OS X

 

HomebrewThe missing package manager for OS X

 

Homebrew installs the stuff you need that Apple didn’t.

$ brew install wget

Install Homebrew

ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL

https://raw.github.com/Homebrew/homebrew/go/install)"

Paste that at a Terminal prompt.

The script explains what it will do and then pauses before it does it.

So maybe sometimes you can use brew to install some software you couldn’t find in AppStores..

 

website : http://brew.sh/index.html